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Science 9 Chapter 11

Science 9 Chapter 11 Practice Test - Mountain Building
 
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Science 9 Chapter 11 Practice Test - Mountain Building

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

All changes in the original shape and/or size of a rock body are called ____.
a.
faulting
c.
folding
b.
deformation
d.
stress
 

 2. 

Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting?
a.
high temperature and low confining pressure
b.
low confining pressure and low temperature
c.
high confining pressure and low temperature
d.
high temperature and high confining pressure
 

 3. 

As heat and pressure increase, ductile deformation ____.
a.
stops occurring
c.
becomes more likely
b.
becomes less likely
d.
is replaced by elastic deformation
 

 4. 

Once the elastic limit of rock is surpassed, which of the following may occur?
a.
The rock may fracture.
b.
The rock may undergo ductile deformation.
c.
The rock may flow.
d.
all of the above
 

 5. 

Deformation in which the object returns to its original shape and size after the stress is removed is called ____.
a.
elastic deformation
c.
brittle deformation
b.
ductile deformation
d.
strain deformation
 

 6. 

Brittle deformation is generally seen in ____.
a.
rocks with strong internal molecular bonds
b.
gypsum and shale
c.
rocks far below Earth’s surface
d.
limestone and schist
 

 7. 

The type of deformation in which the object permanently changes size and shape without fracturing is called ____.
a.
brittle deformation
c.
elastic deformation
b.
ductile deformation
d.
stress deformation
 

 8. 

A material that undergoes tensional stress tends to ____.
a.
shorten
c.
become distorted
b.
stretch
d.
become less dense
 

 9. 

Tensional stresses commonly cause which of the following?
a.
strike-slip faults
c.
thrust faults
b.
reverse faults
d.
normal faults
 

 10. 

Compressional stresses can result in the formation of ____.
a.
rift valleys
c.
thrust faults
b.
horsts and grabens
d.
normal faults
 

 11. 

Faults in which movement is mainly horizontal and parallel to the trend of the fault surface are called ____.
a.
reverse faults
c.
strike-slip faults
b.
thrust faults
d.
normal faults
 

 12. 

Orogenesis is a ____.
a.
theory that explains the formation of strike-slip faults
b.
type of faulting
c.
general term for the processes that produce mountains
d.
type of anticline
 

 13. 

How are mountains classified?
a.
by their age
b.
by the dominant processes that formed them
c.
by the type of faulting that occurred to form them
d.
by the type of rocks that occur within them
 

 14. 

Which of the following lists includes the major types of mountains?
a.
folded, fault-block, volcanic
b.
folded, tensional, compressional
c.
downwarped, compressional, fault-block
d.
none of the above
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 15. 

What type of stresses have the rocks undergone to form the structures in Figure 11-1?
a.
shear stresses
c.
tensional stresses
b.
compressional stresses
d.
none of the above
 

 16. 

What type of faults are shown in Figure 11-1?
a.
strike-slip faults
c.
reverse faults
b.
normal faults
d.
thrust faults
 

 17. 

In Figure 11-1, what structure is labeled A?
a.
graben
c.
syncline
b.
horst
d.
basin
 

 18. 

In Figure 11-1, what is the structure labeled B?
a.
graben
c.
anticline
b.
horst
d.
dome
 

 19. 

In a typical fault-block mountain, ____.
a.
thrust faulting plays an important part in its formation
b.
upwarping creates distinctive features known as domes
c.
the major forces are compressional stresses
d.
large blocks of crust are uplifted along normal faults
 

 20. 

The major forces that form folded mountains are ____.
a.
shear stresses
c.
compressional stresses
b.
tensional stresses
d.
volcanic in nature
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 21. 

According to Figure 11-2, what type of structure does diagram A represent?
a.
normal fault
c.
dome
b.
syncline
d.
basin
 

 22. 

According to Figure 11-2, what type of structure does diagram B represent?
a.
dome
c.
anticline
b.
basin
d.
horst
 

 23. 

In diagram A of Figure 11-2, where would the oldest rock layers be located?
a.
at C
b.
at D
c.
between C and D
d.
The answer cannot be determined.
 

 24. 

How was the structure formed in diagram A of Figure 11-2?
a.
by upwarping of basement rocks
c.
by extensional stresses
b.
by shear stresses
d.
by volcanic activity
 

 25. 

The convergence of two continental plates would produce
a.
island arcs.
c.
folded mountains.
b.
rift valleys.
d.
trenches.
 

 26. 

The collision and joining of crustal fragments to a continent is called continental ____.
a.
subduction
c.
destruction
b.
isostasy
d.
accretion
 

 27. 

What is the major type of stress that occurs at convergent plate boundaries?
a.
shear stress
c.
tensional stress
b.
compressional stress
d.
erosional stress
 

 28. 

What are the major types of mountain ranges that are formed at convergent plate boundaries?
a.
fault-block and uplifted mountains
c.
folded and volcanic mountains
b.
fault-block and folded mountains
d.
volcanic and fault-block mountains
 

 29. 

What type of mountains are produced by ocean-ocean convergence?
a.
parallel belts of folded mountains and volcanic mountains
b.
mainly volcanic mountains
c.
a continental volcanic arc
d.
parallel belts of uplifted mountains and volcanic mountains
 

 30. 

An accumulation of different sedimentary and metamorphic rocks combined with scraps of ocean crust is called a(n) ____.
a.
dome
c.
volcanic island arc
b.
accretionary wedge
d.
fault-block mountain
 

 31. 

What type of mountains are most common at divergent plate boundaries?
a.
folded mountains
c.
fold-and-thrust belts
b.
uplifted mountains
d.
fault-block mountains
 

 32. 

Which of the following are associated with the process of orogenesis at divergent boundaries?
a.
folded mountains
c.
domes and basins
b.
mountain chains at ocean ridges
d.
volcanic island arcs
 

 33. 

In mountainous regions, the continental crust is ____.
a.
thinner than average
b.
thicker than average
c.
the same thickness as in other areas
d.
sometimes thinner and sometimes thicker than average
 

 34. 

As erosion removes the tops of mountains, the crust will rise upwards. This is an example of ____.
a.
normal faulting
c.
isostatic adjustment
b.
mountain building due to uplift
d.
orogenesis
 

 35. 

What force controls the isostatic adjustment of Earth’s crust?
a.
Earth’s internal heat flow
b.
gravity
c.
tidal forces between Earth, the sun, and the moon
d.
compression
 

 36. 

Because of isostasy, a mountain will ultimately ____.
a.
be eroded to near sea level
b.
reach and maintain a maximum height
c.
diverge at its core
d.
become a dome
 



 
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