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Science 9 Chapter 8

Science 9 Chapter 8 Practice Test - Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
 
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Science 9 Chapter 8 Practice Test - Earthquakes and Earth's Interior

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

A fault is ____.
a.
a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur
b.
a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred
c.
the place on Earth’s surface where structures move during an earthquake
d.
another name for an earthquake
 

 2. 

An earthquake’s epicenter is ____.
a.
the place on the surface directly above the focus
b.
a spot halfway between the focus and the surface
c.
the spot below the focus
d.
any spot along the nearest fault
 

 3. 

The hypothesis that explains the release of energy during an earthquake is called the ____.
a.
Richter hypothesis
c.
vibration hypothesis
b.
moment magnitude hypothesis
d.
elastic rebound hypothesis
 

 4. 

During an earthquake, the ground surface ____.
a.
moves only in a horizontal direction
b.
moves only in a vertical direction
c.
can move in any direction
d.
does not move
 

 5. 

The adjustments of materials that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called ____.
a.
foreshocks
c.
aftershocks
b.
surface waves
d.
body waves
 

 6. 

The slow continuous movement that occurs along some fault zones is referred to as ____.
a.
slip
c.
fracture
b.
creep
d.
a foreshock
 

 7. 

Small foreshocks that precede a major earthquake occur ____.
a.
from the day of the major earthquake to days after the earthquake
b.
only on the day of the major earthquake
c.
days or years before the major earthquake
d.
only on the day before the major earthquake
 

 8. 

Earthquake vibrations are detected, measured, and recorded by instruments called
a.
sonargraphs.
c.
Richter scales.
b.
seismographs.
d.
magnetometers.
 

 9. 

Which seismic waves travel most rapidly?
a.
P waves
c.
surface waves
b.
S waves
d.
tsunamis
 

 10. 

Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel?
a.
P waves
c.
surface waves
b.
S waves
d.
transverse waves
 

 11. 

Overall, which seismic waves are the most destructive?
a.
P waves
c.
compression waves
b.
S waves
d.
surface waves
 

 12. 

What is the minimum number of seismic stations that is needed to determine the location of an earthquake’s epicenter?
a.
two
c.
four
b.
one
d.
three
 

 13. 

A travel-time graph can be used to find the ____.
a.
focus of an earthquake
b.
strength of an earthquake
c.
damage caused by an earthquake
d.
distance to the epicenter of an earthquake
 
 
nar001-1.jpg
 

 14. 

According to Figure 8-1, when will the first P wave be received, if an earthquake epicenter is approximately 1800 kilometers from the seismic station?
a.
3.5 minutes after the earthquake
b.
5.5 minutes after the earthquake
c.
6.6 minutes after the earthquake
d.
10.5 minutes after the earthquake
 

 15. 

Use the graph in Figure 8-1 to determine the difference in the travel-times between the first P wave and the first S wave, if the seismic station is 4000 kilometers from the epicenter.
a.
10.0 minutes
c.
5.2 minutes
b.
4.5 minutes
d.
4.2 minutes
 

 16. 

The distance between a seismic station and the earthquake epicenter is determined from the ____.
a.
calculation of the earthquake magnitude
b.
intensity of the earthquake
c.
arrival times of P and S waves
d.
measurement of the amplitude of the surface wave
 

 17. 

The Richter scale measures which of the following earthquake characteristics?
a.
intensity
c.
frequency
b.
magnitude
d.
probability
 

 18. 

The scale most widely used by scientists for measuring earthquakes is the ____.
a.
seismic scale
c.
moment magnitude scale
b.
Richter scale
d.
epicenter magnitude scale
 

 19. 

The amount of shaking produced by an earthquake at a given location is called the ____.
a.
intensity
c.
epicenter
b.
magnitude
d.
Richter magnitude
 

 20. 

The trace that records an earthquake from seismic instruments is called a ____.
a.
seismograph
c.
richtergram
b.
seismogram
d.
magnitude
 

 21. 

How much of an increase in wave amplitude is seen from an earthquake measuring 5.4 on the Richter scale compared to one measuring 4.4?
a.
two times
c.
20 times
b.
ten times
d.
100 times
 

 22. 

Which of the following affects the amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations?
a.
the design of structures
b.
the intensity and duration of the vibrations
c.
the nature of the material on which structures are built
d.
all of the above
 

 23. 

In which of the following areas would the damage from an earthquake measuring 6.8 likely be the greatest?
a.
lightly populated rural area
b.
area with older brick structures
c.
area with modern steel-framed structures
d.
area with wood-framed structures
 

 24. 

A succession of ocean waves set in motion by a submarine earthquake is called a(n) ____.
a.
compression wave
c.
tsunami
b.
underwater landslide
d.
liquefaction
 

 25. 

In areas where unconsolidated sediments are saturated with water, earthquakes can turn stable soil into a fluid through a process called ____.
a.
tidal effect
c.
liquefaction
b.
fault creep
d.
underwater landslide
 

 26. 

Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause a ____.
a.
fault
c.
tsunami
b.
landslide
d.
sinkhole
 

 27. 

Why do earthquakes often cause damaging fires?
a.
Lightning strikes are common during earthquakes.
b.
Earthquake vibrations can break gas lines, water lines, and electrical lines.
c.
Tsunamis from earthquakes generate enough heat to start fires.
d.
Magma from deep underground escapes through faults.
 

 28. 

Which of the following is used in an attempt to make short-range predictions of when earthquakes will occur?
a.
strain in rocks near faults
b.
height of ocean waves after earthquakes
c.
changes in the color of rocks near faults
d.
study of historical records
 

 29. 

Long-range earthquake forecasts are based on the idea that earthquakes are ____.
a.
random
c.
fully understood
b.
destructive
d.
repetitive
 
 
nar002-1.jpg
 

 30. 

What layer of Earth is labeled C in Figure 8-2?
a.
the crust
c.
the mantle
b.
the asthenosphere
d.
the lithosphere
 

 31. 

What layer of Earth is labeled E in Figure 8-2?
a.
the continental crust
c.
the oceanic crust
b.
the lithosphere
d.
the mantle
 

 32. 

What layer of Earth is labeled B in Figure 8-2?
a.
the continental crust
c.
the oceanic crust
b.
the lithosphere
d.
the mantle
 

 33. 

Most of the information about Earth’s interior was obtained by studying ____.
a.
earthquake waves
c.
meteorites
b.
rocks of the ocean crust
d.
rocks in deep wells
 

 34. 

Through which Earth layer are S waves NOT transmitted?
a.
continental crust
c.
inner core
b.
ocean crust
d.
outer core
 

 35. 

Earth’s inner core is solid because of ____.
a.
the composition of its rock
c.
extreme temperatures
b.
its great diameter
d.
immense pressure
 



 
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