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Biology Chapters 39 and 37

Chapter 37 and 39 - The Endocrine, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems
 
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Chapter 37 and 39 - The Endocrine, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The endocrine system is made up of
a.
hormones.
b.
glands.
c.
gonads.
d.
prostaglandins.
 

 2. 

The endocrine system
a.
affects only the reproductive system.
c.
competes with the nervous system.
b.
releases hormones into the bloodstream.
d.
is made up primarily of glands with ducts.
 

 3. 

Which of the following is a gland of the endocrine system?
a.
sweat gland
b.
tear gland
c.
pituitary gland
d.
all of the above
 

 4. 

Unlike nonsteroid hormones, steroid hormones
a.
remain outside the target cell.
c.
have no target cells.
b.
bind to receptors inside the target cell.
d.
are made of proteins.
 

 5. 

One way the endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis is by having
a.
each gland secrete only one hormone.
b.
two hormones with opposite effects regulate certain things.
c.
only steroid hormones regulate important functions.
d.
the pituitary gland regulate all the other glands.
 
 
nar001-1.jpg

Figure 39–1
 

 6. 

Figure 39–1 shows the body’s
a.
hormones.
b.
target cells.
c.
endocrine glands.
d.
exocrine glands.
 

 7. 

Which structure in Figure 39–1 releases hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands?
a.
B
b.
D
c.
H
d.
J
 

 8. 

Which endocrine gland secretes sex hormones?
a.
adrenal medulla
b.
testis
c.
hypothalamus
d.
pituitary
 

 9. 

Which gland fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus?
a.
adrenal
b.
hypothalamus
c.
pancreas
d.
parathyroid
 

 10. 

Which of these secretes a hormone that regulates the rate of metabolism of the body?
a.
spleen
b.
cerebrum
c.
thyroid
d.
kidney
 

 11. 

The fight-or-flight response includes greater heart output and a rise in blood pressure. This response is due to
a.
insulin secreted by the pancreas.
c.
oxytocin secreted by the pituitary gland.
b.
thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland.
d.
adrenaline secreted by the adrenal glands.
 

 12. 

Which of the following are the smallest of the blood vessels?
a.
arteries
b.
veins
c.
lymphatic cells
d.
capillaries
 

 13. 

The function of valves in the human circulatory system is to
a.
stimulate the heartbeat.
c.
prevent the backward flow of blood.
b.
accelerate the flow of blood.
d.
serve as a cushion to prevent friction.
 

 14. 

Compared with the walls of arteries, the walls of veins
a.
are thicker.
c.
lack valves.
b.
are thinner.
d.
have more resistance.
 

 15. 

Which of the following is true about blood pressure?
a.
It is not affected by atherosclerosis.
b.
It is lower in veins than in arteries.
c.
It drops a great deal when traveling through arteries.
d.
Diastolic pressure is higher than systolic pressure.
 

 16. 

When the blood pressure is constantly too high, the condition is known as
a.
a heart attack.
b.
hypertension.
c.
atherosclerosis.
d.
a stroke.
 

 17. 

When the heart contracts, it produces a wave of fluid pressure in the
a.
veins.
b.
arteries.
c.
capillaries.
d.
pharynx.
 

 18. 

How do nutrients, absorbed by the small intestine, travel to the individual cells of the human body?
a.
The nutrients are absorbed from the small intestine into the blood and move through the circulatory system to the body cells.
b.
The nutrients move from the small intestine directly to the liver and then move through the lymphatic system to the body cells.
c.
The small intestine forces the nutrients into the kidneys, where the nutrients are then dissolved in fluids used by the body cells.
d.
The body cells send nerve impulses indicating a lack of nutrients to the small intestine, and the small intestine sends the nutrients back to the cells.
 

 19. 

Students hypothesized that their normal pulse rates would double after doing 50 sit-ups. After completing three trials, four students averaged their individual pulse rates and recorded their results below.
Student
Average Pulse
Rate After 3 Trials
1
120 beats/min.
2
98 beats/min.
3
135 beats/min.
4
110 beats/min.
Based on the data above, a conclusion cannot be made because
a.
the exercise was not strenuous enough to affect the pulse rates.
b.
control data of normal pulse rates for each individual are missing.
c.
the variability in pulse rates among the students is too great.
d.
not enough trials were conducted to be able to draw a conclusion.
 

 20. 

The diagram below shows a human heart.
mc020-1.jpg
When contracted, the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body. What is the purpose of the aortic valve that separates the left ventricle from the aorta?
a.
to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle
b.
to prevent blood from flowing into the aorta
c.
to push blood into the left ventricle
d.
to push blood into the aorta
 

 21. 

Which of the following blood cells contain hemoglobin?
a.
red blood cells
b.
white blood cells
c.
platelets
d.
all of the above
 

 22. 

The process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between cells, the blood, and air in the lungs is called
a.
systemic circulation.
c.
emphysema.
b.
respiration.
d.
cellular respiration.
 

 23. 

Air is filtered, warmed, and moistened in the
a.
nose and mouth.
b.
throat.
c.
lungs.
d.
pharynx.
 

 24. 

Generally speaking, what controls breathing?
a.
the brain
b.
the lungs
c.
the diaphragm
d.
the heart
 

 25. 

Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of the
a.
alveoli.
b.
bronchioles.
c.
diaphragm.
d.
heart.
 

 26. 

Because there is more oxygen in an alveolus than in the blood around it, oxygen diffuses
a.
from capillaries into the veins.
c.
from alveoli into the blood.
b.
from arteries into the capillaries.
d.
from blood into the alveolus.
 

 27. 

What gas, found in cigarette smoke, blocks the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood?
a.
hydrogen peroxide
c.
carbon monoxide
b.
carbon dioxide
d.
sodium bicarbonate
 

 28. 

The respiratory system depends on the nervous system for signals to
a.
enhance the amount of available oxygen in the lungs.
b.
coordinate muscles controlling breathing.
c.
release enzymes to increase the exchange of gases.
d.
exchange gases with the circulatory system.
 

 29. 

Carbon dioxide is produced as cells break down nutrients for energy. Which of the following pairs of systems would participate in removing the carbon dioxide from the body?
a.
endocrine and circulatory
c.
respiratory and endocrine
b.
circulatory and respiratory
d.
reproductive and excretory
 

 30. 

As a person exercises, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood increase. This causes the nervous system to signal which of these systems to respond?
a.
digestive and immune
c.
respiratory and circulatory
b.
immune and respiratory
d.
circulatory and endocrine
 



 
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