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Biology Chapter 40

Chapter 40 - The Immune System and Disease
 
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Chapter 40 - The Immune System and Disease

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by
a.
toxins.
c.
heredity.
b.
microorganisms.
d.
materials in the environment.
 

 2. 

Diseases are caused by
a.
pathogens.
b.
cigarette smoke.
c.
fungi.
d.
all of the above
 

 3. 

How are infectious diseases spread?
a.
through coughing, sneezing, or physical contact
c.
by infected animals
b.
through contaminated water and food
d.
all of the above
 

 4. 

Which of the following is an example of a vector and the disease it spreads?
a.
tall grass and Lyme disease
c.
the Nile river and West Nile disease
b.
the deer tick and Lyme disease
d.
insecticides and malaria
 

 5. 

Antibiotics fight infections by
a.
preventing viruses from replicating.
c.
killing infected cells.
b.
killing bacteria.
d.
growing green mold that inhibits bacterial growth.
 

 6. 

Which of the following is a mechanism that some antiviral drugs use to fight viruses?
a.
interfering with the ability of viruses to invade cells and multiply once inside of them
b.
increasing protein synthesis on ribosomes
c.
killing both bacterial and human cells
d.
none of the above
 

 7. 

Compounds that kill bacterial cells without harming the cells of humans or other animals are called
a.
antiviral drugs.
b.
insecticides.
c.
antibiotics.
d.
carcinogens.
 

 8. 

One advantage of a fever is that it can slow down the
a.
activities of white blood cells.
c.
growth of pathogens.
b.
rate of chemical reactions.
d.
body’s recovery from infection.
 

 9. 

The body’s nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include
a.
antibiotics.
c.
antibodies.
b.
mucus, sweat, and tears.
d.
killer T cells.
 

 10. 

The inflammatory response can cause
a.
permanent immunity.
c.
antibodies to bind to antigens.
b.
pain, swelling, and fever.
d.
killer T cells to attack infected cells.
 

 11. 

The body’s most important nonspecific defense is
a.
the skin.
c.
the inflammatory response.
b.
cell-mediated immunity.
d.
permanent immunity.
 

 12. 

Unlike passive immunity, in active immunity antibodies are produced by
a.
the mother of an infant.
c.
other animals.
b.
your own body.
d.
an autoimmune disease.
 

 13. 

When a person receives a vaccine, his or her body
a.
receives antibodies against a specific pathogen.
b.
creates plasma cells that can produce antibodies against the specific pathogen.
c.
creates antigens to fight the specific pathogen.
d.
immediately begins fighting the infection caused by the pathogens.
 

 14. 

If a person has memory B cells against a certain pathogen, the person is
a.
likely to develop that disease.
b.
much less likely to develop the disease a second time.
c.
able to spread the disease to others through physical contact.
d.
probably still sick with the disease.
 

 15. 

A person who has received a vaccine against polio
a.
is able to produce antibodies against polio.
b.
is more susceptible to the polio virus than someone who has not had the vaccine.
c.
has polio antibodies in the bloodstream.
d.
has antipolio killer T cells in the bloodstream.
 

 16. 

An immune response is triggered by a(an)
a.
antibiotic.
b.
antibody.
c.
antigen.
d.
histamine.
 

 17. 

Asthma is an example of
a.
the immune system attacking its own body cells.
b.
the immune system overreacting to an antigen.
c.
an autoimmune disease.
d.
an infection.
 

 18. 

The sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes associated with allergies are caused when
a.
smooth muscles reduce the size of air passageways in the lungs.
b.
the immune system attacks the body’s own cells.
c.
mast cells release histamines.
d.
infected cells produce interferon.
 

 19. 

What happens when a person who is allergic to ragweed encounters ragweed?
a.
Ragweed antigens bind to mast cells, which release histamines.
b.
Ragweed antibodies attack the immune system.
c.
Mast cells release antihistamines into the bloodstream.
d.
The cells of the immune system become weakened.
 

 20. 

What causes asthma?
a.
Particular antigens trigger mast cells to release histamines.
b.
Particular antigens trigger muscle contractions that make it difficult to breathe.
c.
Antibodies and killer T cells attack cells in the tissues of the lungs.
d.
Antibodies and killer T cells attack cells in the lining of the heart.
 

 21. 

Autoimmune diseases result when the immune system
a.
fails to distinguish self from nonself.
c.
is weakened by asthma.
b.
overreacts to certain antigens.
d.
all of the above
 

 22. 

HIV weakens the immune system by killing
a.
antibodies.
b.
B cells.
c.
helper T cells.
d.
killer T cells.
 

 23. 

HIV spreads through the body by
a.
replicating inside the cells of the immune system.
b.
preventing the body from producing antibodies against HIV.
c.
causing the body to have asthma attacks.
d.
strengthening the immune system.
 

 24. 

Which of the following presents a risk of spreading HIV?
a.
abstaining from sex
c.
kissing someone on the cheek
b.
giving blood
d.
using a contaminated needle to receive an injection
 

 25. 

Healthful behaviors include
a.
eating a healthful diet.
c.
getting regular checkups.
b.
getting plenty of exercise.
d.
all of the above
 

 26. 

What is the greatest danger to a patient who has had damage to the skin?
a.
loss of oils produced by the skin
c.
infections in uncovered tissues
b.
excessive muscle contractions in the damaged area
d.
damaged tissue entering the blood stream
 

 27. 

Sweat and skin secretions contain a mixture of molecules that kills or limits the growth of many types of microbes. This control of microbes is an example of
a.
a nonspecific defense against infection.
b.
an enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reaction.
c.
a feedback loop to maintain homeostasis.
d.
a specific immune response to infection by microbes.
 

 28. 

The Sabin vaccine is a liquid containing weakened polio viruses. Vaccinated individuals become protected against polio because the weakened viruses
a.
prevent further viral invasion.
c.
promote production of antibodies.
b.
induce an inflammatory response.
d.
are too weak to cause illness.
 

 29. 

Injecting a person with a killed-bacteria vaccine can protect that individual from a disease because the proteins of the killed bacteria
a.
remain in the body, and live bacteria later prey on them instead of live tissues.
b.
bind with receptors in the body, so that live bacteria cannot bind with them later.
c.
stimulate the production of antibodies which can be manufactured later in response to infection.
d.
give the person a mild form of the disease, which conditions the body not to respond to later infection.
 

 30. 

Which of the following require a host cell because they are not able to make proteins on their own?
a.
blue-green algae
b.
bacteria
c.
protozoans
d.
viruses
 

 31. 

How do human diseases caused by bacteria and diseases caused by viruses react to antibiotics?
a.
Neither responds to antibiotics.
b.
Both respond to antibiotics.
c.
Viral diseases respond to antibiotics; bacterial diseases do not.
d.
Bacterial diseases respond to antibiotics; viral diseases do not.
 

 32. 

Individuals with HIV sometimes contract a pneumonia infection that is rare in the rest of the population because people with HIV
a.
are unable to fight off these pneumonia-causing organisms.
b.
are more often exposed to these pneumonia-causing organisms.
c.
release pheromones that attract the pneumonia-causing organisms.
d.
release substances that increase the strength of the pneumonia-causing organisms.
 

 33. 

Which of the following is an example of an antigen that might be recognized by the immune system of an individual?
a.
a viral protein
b.
a fat molecule
c.
saline solution
d.
oxygen molecule
 

 34. 

The purpose for giving a person a vaccine is to
a.
introduce chemicals that destroy viruses.
c.
prevent inflammation.
b.
stimulate an immune response.
d.
cure a disease.
 

 35. 

The graph below shows the production of antibodies following a flu shot.
mc035-1.jpg
Which of the following statements best describes the maximum antibody level of a person’s body after a flu vaccination?
a.
It occurs immediately.
c.
It is achieved on day 15.
b.
It is never achieved.
d.
It is achieved on day 18.
 

 36. 

A mineral supplement designed to prevent the common cold was given to two groups of people during a scientific study.
Dosage
Group 1 50 mg/day
Group 2 100 mg/day
After eight weeks, neither group reported a case of the common cold. Which of the following would have made the outcome of this study more valid?
a.
Test only one group with 150 mg of the supplement.
b.
Give the supplement to both groups for only 6 weeks.
c.
Create a third group that receives 75 mg of the supplement.
d.
Create a third group that does not receive the supplement.



 
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